The Demat account, or the electronic account used to hold investment securities, has revolutionized the way people trade in the Indian stock market. Prior to the introduction of Demat accounts, investors had to trade in physical securities using paper certificates. The introduction of Demat accounts has made trading in the stock market more efficient and secure while reducing the time and cost of trading. In this article, we will look at the evolution of Demat accounts and its impact on trading in the Indian stock market.
The Beginning of Demat Accounts
The introduction of Demat accounts in India can be traced back to 1996 when the National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) was established. NSDL is one of the two depositories in India that provides Demat account services. The other is the Central Depository Services Limited (CDSL). At the time of introduction, Demat accounts were used to hold only equity shares. As the popularity of Demat accounts grew, the scope of the securities that could be held in these accounts also expanded to include other securities like bonds, debentures, mutual fund units, and government securities.
Advantages of Demat Accounts
The introduction of Demat accounts has brought several advantages to investors. Firstly, it has eliminated the risk of forged or counterfeit shares, which were prevalent in the paper-based system of trading. Secondly, it has reduced the time and cost of trading, as investors no longer have to wait for the delivery of physical certificates. Thirdly, it has made trading more secure, as the electronic system can track transactions in real time, reducing the risk of theft or fraud. Finally, it has made investment easier for retail investors, as they can hold a diversified portfolio of securities in a single account.
Impact on Trading
The introduction of Demat accounts has had a significant impact on trading in the Indian stock market. Prior to the introduction of Demat accounts, trading in physical securities was a time-consuming process that involved multiple intermediaries. The introduction of Demat accounts has reduced the time and cost of trading, making it more accessible to a wider pool of investors.
The increased efficiency and security of the trading system have also boosted investor confidence in the Indian stock market. As a result, there has been a surge in investments from both domestic and international investors. This surge has led to increased liquidity in the market, resulting in better price discovery and increased market efficiency.
The introduction of Demat accounts has also boosted the growth of the securities market in India. It has made it easier for companies to raise capital by issuing securities, which has led to an increase in the number of initial public offerings (IPOs). This has also led to an increase in the secondary market where investors can buy and sell securities.
Another impact of Demat accounts has been on the role of brokers. Brokers have traditionally been intermediaries between investors and the stock exchange. However, the introduction of Demat accounts has enabled investors to directly participate in the stock market, reducing the dependence on brokers. This has led to increased competition among brokers, leading to reduced brokerage fees and better service for investors.